Operating system or system software is a program designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs. It manages the computer’s memory and all processes.
Characteristics of OS
Following characteristics are present in typical computer-
- Memory Management
- Processor Management
- Device Management
- File Management
- Provide Security
- connect Software and Users
Operating System Types
- Batch OS: It is the first operating system for second-generation computers. OS not directly interact with computer, instead operator handle jobs management on first-come, first, serve principle.
- Time-sharing OS: time sharing allows multiple users to share a computer resource simultaneously using multiprogramming
- Multitasking OS: Multitasking allows a computer system to execute multiple tasks or processes simultaneously.
- Distributed OS: It uses multiple CPU’s independently connected together to serve multiple users and real time applications
- Network OS: It runs on a server(Linux, server2016) and allows to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.
- Real-Time OS: It serve real-time systems like real time simulator. It response to input in very less time.
- Mobile OS: It is an operating system for smartphones, tablets, and PDA’s.
Example of OS
- Microsoft Windows: Windows 11 (Released in 2021) Windows 10 (2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), Windows Vista (2007), Windows XP (2001), and Windows 98.
- MacOS (previously called OS X): Mojave (released in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016).
- UNIX / Linux (Open source OS means free to distribute): Ubuntu, Redhat, Cent OS, Fedora, HPUX, etc.
- Android: Kitkat, Lolipop, etc.